Ingredient Cooking Substitutions. 
Cooking and Baking Substitute Amounts.

Allspice 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with 1⁄2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1⁄2 teaspoon ground cloves.

Apple pie spice 1 teaspoon: 
Substitute with 1⁄2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1⁄4 teaspoon nutmeg and 1⁄8 teaspoon cardamom.

Arrowroot starch 1-1/2 teaspoon:
Substitute with 1 tablespoon Flour, ½ teaspoon cornstarch.

Baking powder, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with 1⁄3 teaspoon baking soda and 1⁄ teaspoon Cream of tartar.

Bay leaf, 1 whole:
Substitute with 1⁄4 teaspoon crushed.

Beau monde 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with 1 teaspoon seasoned salt.

Bread Crumbs ½ cup:
Substitute: 4 slices white bread or French bread, melt 2 tablespoon butter mixed with 1 teaspoon seasoning salt, brush on bread, place bread in oven at 350F and bake until browned, remove and let dry out then crush them.

Broth, 1 cup: 
Substitute with 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup beef or chicken boiling water or 1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water.

Butter 1 cup: 
Substitute with 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1⁄2 teaspoon Salt. 
Or substitute with 1 cup margarine.

Catchup, 1 cup:
Substitute with 1 cup tomato sauce, 1⁄2 cup sugar and 2 tablespoon Vinegar.

Chicken stock, 1-1⁄2 teaspoon:
Substitute with 1 chicken bouillon cube.

Chili sauce, 1 cup: 
Substitute with 1 cup tomato sauce, 1⁄4 cup brown sugar, 2 tablespoon vinegar, 1⁄4 teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and dash of allspice.

Chives 2 teaspoon:
Substitute with 2 teaspoon green onion tops, finely chopped.

Chocolate chips, 1 oz. 
Substitute with 1 oz. sweet cooking chocolate semisweet.

Chocolate, 1-2⁄3 oz. 
Substitute with 1 oz. unsweetened chocolate and 4 teaspoon sugar.

Chocolate 6-oz.
Substitute with 2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tablespoon butter and 1⁄2 cup sugar, melted.

Chocolate, 1 oz. 
Substitute with 3 tablespoon cocoa or a 1 oz. chocolate square and 1 tablespoon unsweetened butter.

Coconut 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with 1-1⁄2 tablespoon fresh coconut, grated.

Coconut cream, 1 cup:
Substitute with 1 cup whipping cream.

Coconut milk 1 cup:
Substitute with 1 cup whole or 2% milk.

Corn syrup, 1 cup:
Substitute with 1 cup sugar and 1⁄4 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) 
Or substitute with 1 cup honey.

Cornstarch, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with 2 tablespoon all-purpose flour (for thickening) and 2 tablespoon granular tapioca.

Cracker crumbs, 1-1/2 cup: 
Substitute with 2 cup dry bread crumbs.

Cream, 1 cup 
7⁄8 cup milk and 1⁄2 tablespoon half-and half or butter or margarine.
Or substitute with 1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted.

Cream, Heavy or Light, 1 cup: 
Substitute with 3⁄4 cup milk and 1⁄3 cup melted butter.
Or substitute with 1 cup undiluted evaporated milk.

Cream, whipped: 
Substitute with “Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated
milk overnight” Add 1 teaspoon Lemon juice. Whip until stiff.

Dill plant, 3 heads:
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon dill seed fresh or dried.

Egg, 1 whole: 
Substitute with: 1/4 cup of unsweetened apple sauce
Or Substitute with: 1/4 cup of plain yogurt (whole, skim or soy).
Or Substitute with: 21⁄2 tablespoon sifted, dry whole egg
powder and 21⁄2 tablespoon lukewarm water.

Egg, 1 yolk:
Substitute with: 2 tablespoon sifted, dry egg yolk powder and 2 teaspoon water.

Flour, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup and 2 tablespoon cake flour all-purpose sifted.
Or substitute with: 1 cup minus 2 tablespoon unsifted all purpose flour, 
Or substitute with: 1-1⁄2 cup bread crumbs.

Garlic, 1 clove: 
Substitute with: 1⁄8 teaspoon garlic powder.

Gelatin, 3 oz.
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon plain gelatin and 2 cups flavored fruit juice.

Ghee, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute: 1tablespoon of vegetable oil and 1 tablespoon of clarified butter.

Ginger, grated fresh (1 tablespoon):
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, and finely cut.

Glucose liquid (1 tablespoon):
Substitute: 1 tablespoon of light corn syrup.

Honey, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1-1⁄4 cups sugar and 1⁄4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe.)

Horseradish, Fresh, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 2 tablespoon bottled horseradish.

Italian seasoning, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 1 teaspoon each of basil, thyme and oregano then mix.

Lemon juice, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 1⁄2 teaspoon Vinegar or  1 medium lemon. 

Macaroni, 2 cups:
Substitute with: 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked or 4 cups cooked. 

Maple sugar, 1⁄2 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup maple syrup.

Mayonnaise, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in
a blender with 1⁄2 teaspoon seasoning salt.

Milk, buttermilk, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup plain yogurt. 
Or substitute with 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon whole milk
and 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (allow to stand 5-10 minutes.)
Or substitute with1 cup sweet milk and 1-3⁄4 teaspoon cream of tartar.

Milk, evaporated:
Substitute with: 1 cup whole milk (whole or skim) plus 1⁄2 cup water.

Milk, skim, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 4-5 tablespoon non-fat dry milk powder
and enough water to make one cup.

Milk, sweetened, 1 can: 
Substitute with: (Heat the following ingredients until dissolved)
1⁄3 cup and 2 tablespoon evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar and 3 tablespoon butter or margarine.

Milk, whole, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup non-fat dry milk and 2 teaspoon butter or margarine 
Or substitute with: 1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water.

Mushrooms, fresh, 1 pound:
Substitute with: 3 oz. dried mushrooms 
Or substitute with: 10 oz. can (8 oz. drained weight) Mushrooms. 

Mustard, dry, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.

Onion, fresh, 1 small:
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon instant minced onion.

Onions, instant, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 2 tablespoon fresh minced onion.

Onion powder, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 1 medium onion, chopped.

Orange, 1 medium 
Substitute with: 6-8 Tbsp. orange juice.

Parsley, dried, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 3 teaspoon fresh parsley, chopped.

Peppers, green bell, dried, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 3 tablespoon fresh green pepper, chopped.
Peppers, red bell dried 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 3 tablespoon fresh red bell pepper, chopped. 
Or Substitute with: 2 tablespoon chopped pimento.

Peppermint, dried, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 1⁄4 cup chopped fresh mint.

Pimento, 2 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 1 tablespoon dried red bell pepper. 
Or substitute with: 3 tablespoon fresh red bell pepper chopped.

Poultry seasoning, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 1/4 teaspoon thyme, 3/4 teaspoon sage.

Pumpkin pie spice, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 1⁄2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1⁄4 teaspoon ginger,
1⁄8 teaspoon allspice and 1⁄8 teaspoon nut meg.

Rice, regular, (3 cups cooked) :
Substitute with: 1 cup uncooked rice. 
Or Substitute with: 1 cup uncooked brown rice. 
Or substitute with: 1 cup uncooked wild rice.

Shortening, melted, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup cooking oil but should not be substituted if recipe
does not call for melted shortening.

Shortening, solid, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1-1⁄8 cups butter or margarine (decrease salt called for in recipe by 1⁄2 teaspoon.)

Sour cream, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 3⁄4 cup sour milk and 1⁄3 cup butter or margarine. 
Or Substitute with: 3⁄4 cup buttermilk and 1⁄3 cup butter or margarine. 
Or Substitute with: with: 1⁄3 cup buttermilk, 1 Tbsp. lemon juice and 2/3 cup cottage cheese, Blend all until smooth.
Or Substitute with: 1 cup plain yogurt.
Or Substitute with: 3⁄4 cup milk, 3⁄4 teaspoon lemon juice and
1⁄3 cup butter or margarine.

Spearmint, dried, 1 tablespoon:
Substitute with: 1⁄4 cup chopped fresh mint.

Sugar, brown, 1 cup: 
Substitute with: 1 cup White Sugar 1/4 cup corn syrup (decrease liquid
called for in recipe by 1⁄4 cup.)
Or Substitute with: with: 1-1⁄3 cup molasses (decrease liquid
called for in recipe by 1⁄3 cup.)
Or Substitute with: with: 1 cup honey (decrease liquid called
for in recipe by 1⁄4 cup.) 
Or Substitute with: 1-3⁄4 cup confectioners’ sugar packed tightly.

Tomatoes, Fresh, 2 cups: 
Substitute with: 1 - 16 oz. Can tomatoes (drained.)
Or Substitute with: 1 cup Tomato Juice.

Tomatoes, canned, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 whole and 1/3 piece of fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 minutes.

Vanilla, natural extract, (1 teaspoon):
Substitute: 1/2 to 1 teaspoon other extract (orange, lemon, almond, mint, etc)

Wine (in sauce):
Substitute: Add a little sugar to vinegar

Wine, red: 
Substitute: Equivalent amount of beef broth

Wine, rice and sake:
Use the same amount of sherry

Wine, white:
Substitute: Equivalent amount of apple juice or cider.

Wine vinegar:
Substitute: Reduce 1 cup red wine and 1 teaspoon sugar on medium high heat while stirring until it reduces one-half.

Worcestershire, 1 teaspoon:
Substitute with: 1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce.

Yeast, active dry, 1 tablespoon. 
Substitute with: 1 cake yeast, compressed.
Or Substitute with: 1 package (1⁄4 oz) active dry yeast.

Yogurt, plain, 1 cup:
Substitute with: 1 cup buttermilk or Substitute with 1 cup cottage cheese, blended until Smooth or Substitute with 1 cup sour cream.